Adderall belongs to a class of drugs called amphetamines which are psychostimulants that excite the central nervous system. Prescription Adderall uses are for conditions such as ADHD and narcolepsy because this medication improves alertness and concentration. But many people abuse the drug for its euphoric effects. Addicts buy Adderall on the black market to chase an Adderall high. What does Adderall look like? Who is at risk of developing an addiction to this medication? Let’s find out.
An Overview of Adderall Drug
According to the 2013 study “Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective,” amphetamines were introduced to the American drug market by Smith, Kline, French (SKF) in the 1930s for narcolepsy and depression. They were also used in World War II to improve alertness, concentration, motivation, and memory in servicemen. Once SKF’s patent expired and other pharmaceutical companies began manufacturing these drugs, there was a surge in sales.
By the 1950s and 1960s, experts realized amphetamines are habit forming and not merely like caffeine, a common legally available stimulant. A decade or two later, the health consequences of amphetamine addiction emerged more clearly, and legislation was passed to control their use. In 1971, these medicines were classified as schedule II substances with a high potential for addiction. Prescription use for ADHD skyrocketed in the 1990s, as did legal Adderall complications and lawsuits. By 2015, according to Monitoring the Future survey sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, amphetamines were the most abused prescription drugs by high school students. It became increasingly common for students or professionals to pop an illegally obtained prescription stimulant to deal with academic and work pressures.
Is Adderall a narcotic?
From the medical point of view, Adderall is not a narcotic. It is a stimulant, which are drugs that increase blood pressure and heart rate, boost energy, enhance alertness, and help maintain wakefulness. Stimulants are often called uppers or speed on the street.
What is Adderall Made Of?
The Adderall chemical structure consists of amphetamine and dextroamphetamine mixed salts. What does the medication look like? It is available in capsule and tablet form. The tablets are round or elliptical shaped and come in different colors such as blue, orange, and pink Adderall in different strengths ranging from 2.5 mg to 30 mg.
What is the difference between Adderall XR vs IR?
Both formulations of the medication contain the same active ingredients, dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine in a ratio of 3:1. However, Adderall XR, which was introduced by Shire Pharmaceuticals in 2001 is a longer acting formulation that provides prolonged relief of symptoms for up to 12 hours. In contrast, the immediate release IR format is shorter acting, and its effect only lasts 4-6 hours, which means the patient needs to take it 2-3 times every day. This complicates treatment, especially in children with ADHD who require supervision by a parent or school nurse for medication administration. XR capsules are more expensive than IR tablets, but there is no significant difference in efficacy, side effects, or potential for addiction.
Does Adderall Expire?
The medication can maintain its potency for years after the expiry date and is safe to take for the most part, although the effectiveness may decrease over time.
How to take a prescription amphetamine?
It should be taken in the morning with or without food. Late evening doses may result in insomnia. The capsules should not be crushed or chewed. If a person cannot swallow the capsule whole, it should be carefully opened, and the contents added to a spoonful of applesauce. Adderall and breastfeeding are not recommended because the medicine can pass on to the baby through breastmilk. It’s important to be aware of Adderall drug interactions, i.e., medications such as MAOIs (a type of antidepressants) and others that interact with amphetamines and may cause problems.
What is Adderall Prescribed For?
Amphetamines are prescribed to people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder because they lack normal levels of dopamine, the feel-good neurotransmitter in the brain which is naturally released during rewarding experiences. Dopamine regulates a number of important functions in the body, such as cognition, learning, sleep, mood, memory, and attention. The mechanism of action of amphetamines is that they increase levels of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine in the brain.
Adderall s a prescription stimulant that is used to treat narcolepsy in addition to ADHD in adults, adolescents, and children. The medication helps people with these conditions calm down, maintain attention, and ward off excessive sleepiness for up to 12 hours.
The use of Adderall for anxiety treatment is not approved by the FDA, but some people use it to deal with social anxiety because it increases sociability and confidence and boosts mood and energy. Adderall dosage starts at 2.5 to 5 mg daily and doses of more than 40 mg per day for ADHD are rarely needed. However, it is worth noting that the drug can make the situation worse as the Adderall anxiety can also be one of the common side effects of the medicine.
Stimulant drugs increase focus, memory, and motivation and can help with studies; however, it is not advisable to use them inappropriately without a prescription. This is not only illegal but also very dangerous because of a high potential for addiction.
There are many similar less addictive drugs; however, they all are slightly different in the mechanism of action and efficiency. For example, when comparing Adderall vs Vyvanse one shall know that both these medicines are different amphetamine derivatives, although differ in structure. Vyvanse is also an approved treatment for binge eating disorder, and Adderall use for weight loss is not approved by FDA.
Understanding Stimulant Abuse
Certain prescription medications are stimulants and are commonly abused for effects such as elation, energy, confidence, and concentration. Cramming for an exam, boosting physical energy before a sports event, losing weight, and are common reasons for misuse of these medications. Abuse is dangerous and can lead to tolerance over time, addiction, and serious health problems. It may be far safer to use a natural Adderall substitute.
Many addicts are not aware of the addiction potential of the drug and the Adderall overdose amount. Amphetamine doses of more than 20 to 25 mg per kilogram of body weight can be lethal. To avoid an overdose with large doses of these medicines, addicts have found other ways to abuse amphetamines. Addicts can also crush and smoke Adderall because this method of drug delivery allows the medicine to enter the bloodstream within a few seconds. Insufflation or snorting powdered Adderall involves blowing the drug into the nasal cavity to obtain a faster high. Plugging Adderall refers to taking the drug by the rectal route by inserting the pill or capsule or using an enema. In people with an amphetamine addiction, these methods of abuse are incredibly dangerous. They not only increase the risk of overdose, but can cause damage to the lungs, nasal cavity, and rectum.
Who is at Risk of Amphetamine Addiction
Prescription stimulants produce feelings of euphoria. They increase confidence and alertness and suppress appetite. That’s why they are the go-to drugs for people who want to boost physical and mental performance or obtain a recreational high. Some people take Adderall IR or some other formulation to deal with social anxiety. People who are most likely to abuse stimulant prescription drugs and develop an addiction include:
- High school and college students use Adderall to study: to improve focus and concentration and cope with long study sessions before exams.
- Working professionals in high-stress jobs for improved memory, motivation, attention, and energy.
- Athletes take Adderall to enhance physical performance, mask fatigue and pain, and increase concentration and aggression.
- Young people with social anxiety to gain confidence, boost mood, and improve social skills.
- Individuals with eating disorders for appetite suppression and rapid weight loss.
Causes of Amphetamine Addiction
Many people who misuse Adderall XR and other formulations of the drug assume these medications are safe because they are prescribed to children. The truth is that they are schedule II substances with a serious potential for misuse and addiction. Dependence on these medications has both physical and psychological components.
The physical aspects of the prescription stimulant addiction include tolerance, cravings, and withdrawal symptoms. Non-prescription use of amphetamines leads to tolerance over time where progressively larger doses are needed to get the same effects. Occasional or recreational use of Adderall can rapidly progress to full-blown addiction. A person with an addiction to prescription stimulants cannot function normally without the drug. Cravings and unpleasant withdrawal symptoms can occur upon abruptly discontinuing or decreasing the drug. Individuals with an addiction may continue taking the medicine to avoid or reverse these symptoms. The psychological aspects of addiction to prescription stimulants include panic attacks, anxiety or depression, lack of confidence, and social withdrawal.
Stimulant Addiction: Statistics and Facts
Despite the serious physical and psychological consequences, addiction to extended release Adderall and other formulations of the drug has been increasing in the last few decades. Here are some statistics that indicate the scale of the problem:
- Full-time college students between the ages of 18 and 22 are twice as likely to be non-medical users of amphetamines compared to students who do not attend college full-time.
- 7.5 percent of 12th graders admit to the non-medical use of Adderall in the past year.
- Amphetamine abuse and addiction are on the rise among young adults between ages 18 and 25 who primarily obtain the drug from friends or relatives and use it without a doctor’s recommendation or prescription.
- Students who abuse prescription stimulants have lower GPAs in high school and college compared to those who don’t use study drugs.
Recognizing Amphetamine Addiction: Red Flags to Look Out For
Taking prescription stimulants without a doctor’s prescription is illegal and is considered drug abuse. Here are some Adderall addiction symptoms you should be vigilant for:
- Taking larger doses or more frequent doses than prescribed
- Taking an Adderall pill without a prescription for non-medical reasons
- Unexplained physical symptoms such as headaches, hoarse voice, sleep disturbance, dilated pupils, sweating, restlessness, and hyperactivity
- Rapid unexplained weight loss
- Being able to go days without sleep
- Snorting, smoking or plugging the drug to obtain a faster high
- Searching online for how to make Adderall stronger
- Buying the drug from dealers or other unlawful sources
- Spending time figuring out how to get Adderall prescription
- Continuing use despite being aware of negative consequences
Helping Addicts with Stimulant Addiction
People with an addiction to stimulants find it very hard to quit. Overcoming the dependence takes courage and determination. Every recovering addict is unique, but some things are common to nearly everyone with a drug habit. Do not expect the person to immediately agree they have a problem or agree to seek help. Be prepared to deal with emotions such as fear and embarrassment. Here’s a step-by-step guide for helping a friend or relative with an Adderall addiction:
- Step 1: Build Trust: Refrain from criticizing, judging, nagging, yelling, or name calling. Do not agree to try the drug yourself. Try to understand the stressors that are driving the addictive behavior. Don’t protect the person from the consequences of their behavior and don’t try to control them.
- Step 2: Get Help: Dealing with an Adderall addict is a stressful process. Make sure you have help to manage the stress. Seek professional counseling if necessary.
- Step 3: Communicate: Be honest, open minded, and non-threatening in your communication with the recovering addict. Do not blame or humiliate them. Tell them that the addiction is a problem, and they need to do something about it, but the decision must be theirs.
- Step 4: Start Treatment: Talk about how the Adderall addiction has affected you and discuss treatment goals. Respect their right to privacy and don’t talk to common friends or family about the addiction.
Treatment for Amphetamine Addiction
The first question that comes to mind when seeking treatment for amphetamine dependence is probably how long it takes for Adderall to leave your system. And is there a difference between pink, orange, and blue Adderall? The drug leaves the body completely in about three days. The different colored pills are different dosages and formulations (XR or IR) of the medication.
What does the treatment for amphetamine addiction involve? There is currently no FDA-approved drug that specifically targets amphetamine addiction. The mainstay of substance abuse therapies for prescription stimulant addiction is detox and psychotherapy. Don’t hesitate to ask for professional help if you do not know how to come down from Adderall safely or if looking for a safe and easy Adderall comedown remedy.
The symptoms of Adderall withdrawal can be rough, and detox should be performed under the supervision of medical professionals. Detoxification at one of the best drug rehab centers can ensure that withdrawal from the drug is as safe and as comfortable as possible. Inpatient and outpatient rehab centers offer programs where recovering addicts can detox safely and develop new coping strategies and life skills to beat addiction forever and remain drug-free. Treatment involves:
- Intervention by a trained therapist to help the person realize they have a problem with stimulant addiction.
- Detoxification at an addiction treatment center for a gradual withdrawal from the medication under supervision.
- Entry into a formal drug rehab program with evaluation for co-occurring mental health issues and behavioral counseling.
- Long-term follow-up and relapse prevention strategies.
Find the Help You Need
If you or someone you love has an addiction to amphetamines, call our free helpline (888)-459-5511 for more information on treatment options. Advisors are available to answer your questions, give you more information on stimulant drugs, and guide you towards safe recovery from Adderall addiction. Calls are always confidential and secure.