There are many theories on why addiction happens. Why can some people try a drug and become addicted, while others do not?
Many have asked, why is having a glass of wine with dinner every night fine for some, while others will develop a drinking problem? Science is coming close to determining what makes one person more susceptible to addiction than others, and more than likely, there are a combination of factors at play.
What is Addiction?
While similar, there is a difference between addiction and substance abuse. You can abuse a substance without being clinically addicted to it. In order for substance abuse to occur, doctors say that certain criteria must be met. This can include:
- Failing to meet responsibilities in order to use a substance, or because of substance use
- Continuing to use the substance with full knowledge of any problems, health-related or otherwise, it causes
- Legal problems arising due to substance use
- Behaving recklessly when under the influence of the substance, or while trying to obtain the substance
All of these symptoms are also common with those who have drug addictions, but these are not addictions in and of themselves. In order for doctors or mental health professionals to consider a patient addicted, three or more of the following must occur:
- Experience of withdrawal symptoms. These can include nausea, vomiting, dizziness, changes in mood, and many other physical symptoms that occur when the substance hasn’t been used.
- Tolerance to the drug or alcohol. Tolerance occurs when more of a drug is needed to elicit the same physical effects, or when the effects are diminished when taking the usual amount.
- Ignoring activities or obligations once loved, such as work, school, family time, social engagements, or hobbies
- Spending large amounts of time trying to obtain the drug, taking the drug, or recovering from using the drug
- Loss of self-control. This could mean using more of the drug than the person intended, or an inability to stop taking the drug, even when attempts have been made.
- Using the drug, despite the negative consequences it causes. These could be related to loss of work, negatively affected familial relationships, or health risks associated with drug use.
At this point in the process, the brain has been altered to crave the drug in order to function normally. As tolerance continues to build, more and more of the drug will be required in order to achieve the same results. This can quickly to lead to overdose, especially with hard drugs and certain prescriptions.
Drug Abuse and the Brain
Some drugs are more addictive than others. Thanks to scientific brain imaging, it has been discovered the addictive drugs and other substances become addictive because they change the neurons in the brain, as well as the way they behave. Most commonly, drugs impact the areas of the brain that recognize pleasure.
As the drug takes its hold, things that once seemed enjoyable no longer create the same pleasurable feelings, while the brain begins to perceive the drug itself as a source of pleasure. Drug may also affect the areas of the brain responsible for judgment, decision-making, and memory. This is one reason why drug abusers may behave recklessly, and why they begin engaging in riskier and riskier behavior in order to obtain the drug.
Reasons for Addiction
These brain chemical processes are well documented, and are a large component in how addiction takes place. Why some people will experience these changes sooner and more aggressively than others isn’t fully understood. It is suspected that certain genetic and biophysical markers are at play.
Another theory for why addiction is more prevalent in certain people is that certain groups use drugs for self-medication due to conditions like depression or anxiety. Others may use drugs to cope with physical pain.
Most Common Addictions
Not all drugs are addictive, but many are. Even caffeine, found naturally in coffee and cocoa, can become an addiction. While statistics are not fully known, in the US there are approximately 3.6 million people with a drug addiction. This is compared to 18.7 million people who are addicted to alcohol. Many of these individuals are addicted to multiple substances, or addicted to drugs as well as alcohol. Millions of others are addicted to substances such as caffeine, while others are addicted to non-ingestible things like gambling, sex, and other risky behaviors.
Some drugs are more popular than others. This usually due to accessibility and cost when compared to other drugs. The most common addictive drugs are:
- Marijuana: This is the most commonly used addictive drug. While many people believe cannabis is not addictive, this is false. You can develop a dependency on marijuana.
- K2/Spice: Synthetic marijuana is often readily available, inexpensive, and legal. While many ingredients are continually banned from sale as controlled substances, manufacturers of these drugs are quick to develop new formulations using different ingredients in order to put their products back on the market. Spice can be purchased right in convenience stores or vaping shops, making it easy to acquire for young people.
- Pain killers: Opioids (such as morphine or OxyContin) are commonly abused and are among the most popularly abused pain medications.
- Stimulants: Prescriptions like Ritalin are often abused for the “high” they produce.
- Sedatives: Lunesta, Valium, Xanax, and other sedative medications are often taken for the euphoria they produce. They may also be used in combination of other drugs in order to subdue their effects.
Some prescription and over the counter cough syrups are also taken for the alcohol content as well as the codeine and promethazine content.
Addiction is a serious problem that can rarely be tackled without professional help. The majority of people who attempt to get clean and sober on their own will relapse. A good inpatient facility is the answer for many drug addicts, because they combine the counseling they need to overcome any emotional problems which led to the drug abuse, as well as the tools and medical care they need to overcome physical and social reasons for addiction.