There is no denying that addiction treatment has come a long way. Therapies, such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation allow the patient to receive treatment in a way that does not involve more drugs or invasive procedures. TMS therapy is considered to be effective for the treatment of both addiction and mental illnesses. Learn what TMS is, why it’s done, how TMS works, conditions it can be used for, its cost, side effects, and more.
Table Of Contents:
Introduction To TMS Therapy
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), also known as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive medical procedure that uses magnetic pulses at specific regions of the brain. Magnetic pulses pass through the patient’s skull and stimulate brain cells, which improves communication between different parts of the brain.
This therapy is usually done when first-line treatments such as addiction treatment medication, therapies, ECT, and self-help activities are not effective on an individual.
Working Principle Of TMS Therapy
During the TMS therapy, an electromagnetic coil is placed near the brain area, which is responsible for mood regulation. The coil sends out a magnetic pulse that stimulates the nerve cells in the brain. The overall stimulation has a lasting effect on brain functioning that helps or depression symptoms. TMS does not require anesthesia and is well-tolerated, as compared to other treatments, such as ETC.
The treatment specialists also use TMS for the symptoms that are associated with addiction. TMS helps the individual stimulate their brain, reduce cravings, and return control over their mood. The use of this therapy has also shown positive results in fighting cravings.
Uses Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Like psychodynamic techniques and other behavioral therapies, TMS is used for various mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression. It is also used to treat individuals who are suffering from substance abuse.
TMS For Depression
Transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy uses magnetic pulses to affect the limbic system, responsible for regulating cravings in the brain and helps an individual to recover. The therapy reboots the brain network in the affected areas. The reboot speeds up the recovery and also addresses the mental health issues, such as depression.
One factor that makes it a safe treatment is that it only operates to a limited depth inside the brain.
TMS For Meth Addiction
A double-blind, randomized trial published in the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health found a significant decrease in craving and withdrawal symptoms after ten days of rTMS treatment. The study proved that rTMS also acts as a prospective tool against withdrawal syndrome.
Further, meth detoxification is also possible when high-frequency targets the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
TMS For Coke Addiction
According to a US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health study, rTMS reduces cocaine craving. 11 out of 16 people who received rTMS treatment for cocaine addiction did not experience the symptoms after one month of therapy. On the other hand, the group who received standard treatment, only 3 were free from their symptoms in the same time frame.
According to a study mentioned above, the deeper stimulation of magnetic field associated with the rTMS has odds of obtaining long-lasting effects, such as a reduction in drug consumption and craving. rTMS is also found to be effective in treating psychological and behavioral patterns of cocaine addiction.
TMS For Alcohol Dependence
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation therapy is known as a safe and effective way to get rid of alcohol addiction. This therapy calms the area of the brain, which causes a craving for alcohol. If someone is trying to detox from alcohol, this therapy helps them to become successful in it by reducing the cravings. Along with this, the likelihood of relapse is also reduced.
TMS Therapy Procedure
When TMS Starts Working?
A TMS treatment course includes daily sessions for around 4-6 weeks. The initial appointment lasts for about 60 minutes, while the following sessions go for around 20-40 minutes. As the treatment continues, the type of devices and the amount of stimulation is changed, depending on one’s symptoms.
How To Prepare For TMS?
Before the patient goes for TMS or rTMS, the individual should go through a:
- Psychiatric evaluation to evaluate the present condition of your mental health.
- Physical exam and other lab tests.
What Will Happen During Each Session?
During the session, the patient will sit in a comfortable chair with earplugs, and a magnetic coil placed on the head. When the machine is turned on, the individual will hear clicking sounds and experience a tingling sensation in the head.
The procedure will last for around 40 minutes, and the individual might feel some scalp discomfort (during and afterward).
Side Effects Of TMS Therapy
Since TMS is a non-invasive treatment, it is considered safe and well-tolerated. However, it causes some side effects, including:
- Scalp discomfort
- Mild headaches
- Twitching of facial muscles
The most serious side effect of TMS treatment is a seizure. But the risk of this effect is at around .001%. If a patient experiences any of the above transcranial magnetic stimulation side effects, the doctor will either adjust the level of stimulation or recommend over-the-counter medications.
Further, the persons who should not undergo this therapy include:
- Pregnant women
- Taking medications, including herbal, vitamins, OTCs or prescription
- Having a history of seizures
- Have implanted medical devices, such as stents, magnetic implants, stimulators, electrodes, coils, bullet fragments, or any other metal device.
- Have mental health disorders
- Suffered from any brain diseases
Difference Between TMS vs. ECT
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) is a procedure where controlled electrical currents are passed through the brain, while the person is under anesthesia. This treatment results in a controlled seizure that affects chemicals in the brain and resets it.
Unlike ECT, TMS does not involve the application of direct current to a patient’s head. It just stimulates a specific part of the brain by creating a magnetic field around it. Further, this process also does not result in seizures or any severe after-effects.
Cost Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
The cost of TMS therapy varies, according to the level of treatment and stimulation required by an individual. But usually, transcranial magnetic stimulation cost lies in the range of $400-$500 per session. The total cost for the entire session goes about $15,000.
Seeking TMS Therapy Nearby
When it comes to seeking treatment for addiction, there is no remedy that works for everyone. Some get help from first-line treatments, such as medications, and more, while others rely on EMDR treatment or even music treatment, but there are some people who are unable to tolerate the side effects caused by OTCs and ECT therapy. However, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) therapy works for them.
The individual can look out for a dedicated TMS therapy facility near them, and treatment facility will connect with the patient to provide the required treatment.
- Ying Liang, Lei Wang, Ti-Fei Yuan, Targeting Withdrawal Symptoms in Men Addicted to Methamphetamine With Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583874/
- Corinna Bolloni, Paola Badas, Giorgio Corona, Marco Diana, Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of cocaine addiction: evidence to date, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967377/