Percocet is a combination drug that mechanism of action is to influence on the brain, changing how the user responds to varying levels of pain. Just as with any other drug, the timeline of response and the overall effectiveness of Percocet depends on different factors. Find out how Percocet works and metabolizes in the body system, and how long it takes for Percocet to kick in.
How Does Percocet Work?
First of all, it is important to mention that this is a combination drug. The following are the active ingredients in Percocet:
- Oxycodone hydrochloride: a painkiller with a similar mechanism of action to morphine.
- Acetaminophen: a pain reliever that works for mild cases.
Percocet Mechanism of Action in the Brain
The recent study has shown, that most synthetic opioids such as Percocet or Vicodin have a quite similar mechanism of action. They work by supplying opioids to the neurotransmitter opioid receptors in the brain. If you take a Percocet pill, it works by dissolving in your digestive tract and then transferring into the bloodstream through a channel all the way to the brain.
When the dissolved ingredients make their way into the brain, they bind with the aforementioned opioid receptors, significantly reducing the feeling of pain in the body by lulling the brain into a sense of pleasure. Opioids such as Percocet do not work on the pain a user is feeling. Percocet mechanism of action is to trick the brain by blocking its sensitivity to pain – making it believe that the body is not in pain.
On the flip side, in a large doses Percocet mechanism of action may do more than block pain receptors in the brain. These doses have been known to lead to a Percocet high similar to drugs such as heroin.
Symptoms may be exhibited in these cases include:
- Feelings of euphoria
- An extreme level of relaxation and calm
- A heightened sense of pleasure
- High blood pressure
How is Oxycodone Metabolized?
The point of drug metabolism is to make the components hydrophilic so it can easily be passed out as excretion, mostly in the urine form. According to the study published on NCBI, all metabolism for opioids take place in the liver.
There are general patterns that can be seen with most users, and these usually involve two significant phases.
Phase one of oxycodone metabolism involves subjecting the pill to hydrolysis or oxidation, and phase two involves attaching the drug to substances that are hydrophilic (such as glycine or glutathione). The order of the phases may vary according to the system of the user, but the expected result is the same. When the painkiller becomes sufficiently hydrophilic, then it is excreted from the body.
How is Acetaminophen Metabolized?
Due to the study on the metabolism of acetaminophen, it also takes place in the liver. The first phase of metabolism is called sulfation in which the ingredient binds to a sulfate molecule and then a glucuronide molecule (glucuronidation). Consequently, it is then expelled from the body by the liver.
If the liver contains an excessive amount of acetaminophen from Percocet, it can saturate the glucuronidation and sulfation pathways. In that situation, the ingredient has to be processed through a different pathway – the cytochrome P-450 system. This system forms a toxic, intermediate metabolite which is consequently disarmed by yet another pathway – the glutathione system.
How Long it Takes for Percocet to Kick in?
The length of time it takes for Percocet to work in the system varies according to the individual and the strength of the dosage of Percocet in the system. Different people require different dosage strengths to deal with varying levels of pain, so there is no “set in stone” timeline. Usually, a physician would recommend a patient to start with the smaller doses, for example, Percocet 5/325mg, and increase dosage strengths only if it doesn’t work. This will help to keep the side effects at a bare minimum while making sure it remains effective work for its purpose.
Regarding the question of how long it takes for Percocet to kick in, another major influencing factor is the manner of ingestion. Typically, the pill is used orally and should kick in within 15 to 20 minutes. Then, it reaches maximum levels of concentration in the bloodstream within the first 30 to 60 minutes.
For a patient who has been using the painkiller for a while, they may experience a sort of delayed kick in. It means the body has become accustomed to prescribed Percocet dose and need an increase to keep the drug effective. However, such a patient still needs to check with a qualified doctor before deciding to increase the dosage strength of Percocet.
Smoking, Snorting, and Injecting
People are known to choose the path of any one of these options instead of the traditional, recommended method of swallowing drugs in which the painkillers act normally. They are inadvisable and may cause adverse reactions in the body. Additionally, the timeline during which the drug begins to kick in is different when the patient smokes or injects it. The drug acts instantaneously, but side effects are generally more prominent, especially in the stronger doses.
Factors Influencing The Timeline
Some key factors will affect Percocet work inside the system include:
- Age: blood concentrations of oxycodone is 15% higher in patients over the age of 65 than in younger adults.
- Gender: blood concentration levels are more elevated for healthy females than in males.
- Liver function: the half-life of Percocet is longer in people who have liver dysfunction. This means the drug will remain in their systems for a longer time than the average.
- Kidney function: the average half-life of Percocet also increases in people with kidney problems.
- Length and regularity of ingestion: the longer (or more regularly) a patient has been taking Percocet, the longer it will take for the body to get rid of it completely.
- Alcohol: the effects of Percocet with alcohol are a lot stronger than is usual. It can lead to a Percocet overdose even with fatal circumstances.
- Other medications: Patients need to be wary about other medications that interfere with Percocet. Combining Zoloft and Percocet, for example, can cause serotonin syndrome in the patient.
- Pregnancy or breastfeeding: Using Percocet during pregnancy can be tricky because a lot of nursing mothers may be on some other drugs and their mechanism of action could cause an adverse reaction when contacted with Percocet in the bloodstream.
How Long Does Percocet Last in the Body?
The duration of a drug’s presence in the bloodstream of a patient can be measured by calculating the half-life of the drug. Typically, it takes a couple of half-lives for the blood to be completely rid of the drug. The half-life life of Percocet is just over three hours, while the extended-release formulations last between four and a half to five and a half hours. In most people, the blood will be completely rid of the drug within 24 hours, although traces of it can be found in the saliva, hair or urine for longer than that.
If you feel the need to use Percocet, remember that self-medication or switching from Percocet to alternatives can be dangerous, and the best way to go is to speak to a professional first. If a person mentions that the painkiller doesn’t work as before or any signs of Percocet addiction, he should call or visit a rehab center. Do not attempt to make decisions on your own.
If you or a loved one has any questions concerning the mechanism of action of Percocet, feel free to reach out through the helpline (888)-459-5511 for further information. Rest assured that all calls will remain confidential and secure.