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  • Binge Drinking: The Dangers of Taking Things Too Far

    Uncorking a bottle of champagne; wine glasses clinking when you make toast; cold beers being passed around among friends—in so many cultures around the world, good times are celebrated with alcohol.

    But sometimes things go too far. One drink leads to another, and before realizing it, a person has drunk too much alcohol. Binge drinking, both by alcoholics and non-alcoholics, is dangerous and can trigger life-threatening health complications.

    In a culture where drinking alcohol is socially accepted, you will have many occasions to celebrate with a drink. Make sure that you don’t regret it later; learn about the perils of binge drinking and rein yourself in before things go too far.

    What is Binge Drinking?

    Binge drinking is a pattern of excessive alcohol consumption. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, it is drinking enough (generally 5 or more drinks by men and 4 or more drinks by women over 2 hours) that the blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) of the person reaches 0.08 percent or more.

    At a BAC of 0.06 percent, balance, reaction times, speech, vision, and hearing start to be noticeably impaired. Reasoning, memory, and the ability to control impulses are also impaired.

    We can also bust a myth for you: Most people who binge drink are not alcoholics, according to the Community Preventive Services Task Force, an initiative of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

    The myth that only alcoholics binge drink makes many social drinkers let down their guard when they are around alcohol. “One more drink” does not seem too many because they believe they “can’t” binge drink.

    Binge drinking is dangerous because it takes only a little “more” to make a person go over the edge.

    Why do people Binge Drink?

    Different people binge drink for different reasons. However, there are some common trends that can demonstrate why people in different age groups binge drink.

    Perhaps the main group people think about when they hear “binge drinking” is young adults. It is a concern for the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as studies show people in this age group often binge to over double the amount stated above that defines the term.

    According to Surveys

    About 60% of college-age men report binging on more than 10 drinks a night. 33% of college-age women report binging on more than 8 drinks.

    One study has found that 7% of men report binging on more than 15 drinks, an amount with a hugely increased risk of coma and death.

    That said, it is worth mentioning that these were self-reporting surveys, where people were asked to state the number along with their gender. However, that number wasn’t tested by any other measure. Self-report studies are dependent on the participants telling the complete truth in their answers. Unfortunately, this isn’t always the case. There is a tendency in this type of study for people to conform to the social norms expected of their gender. Men over report things associated with masculinity, such as drinking,  in some social groups. Women under-report things that are associated with being unladylike. This is a good news/bad news scenario. The good news is that whilst the percentage of men may be smaller, the bad news is that those numbers for female drinking could be significantly higher.

    Using a similar design, studies have also shown that just over a quarter (28%) of young adults (18-34) have binged at least once in the past month. The average of drinks does go down during this period, from 9.3 for 18-year-olds to 8.4 for 34-year-olds. Among those that do binge, the average is about 4 binges per month or 1 per week.

    People who leave home for college are significantly more likely to binge drink, and more likely to drink more during a binge.

    Binging for Fun

    The more common reason given for binge drinking is that it’s fun, and can be stress relieving.

    For most young people in our society, a great amount of pressure is placed on them. They are expected to do well in college, which costs them a large amount of money with uncertain career and housing prospects following. All this is expected whilst maintaining a part-time job, and if not, then living up to parents’ expectations. Most young people just want a chance to let their hair down every now and then, lose their inhibitions and have a good time.

    Losing inhibitions is one of the reasons why people, especially more introverted people, binge drink. Introverts feel they can only really get to know people and make friends in a short amount of time if they feel free enough to do so. Innumerable young adults for as long as there has been alcohol would admit to binge drinking in order to meet people.

    Peer Pressure

    Which is all well and good so long as it isn’t an example of peer pressure. Although it is mostly evident in high schools, it can play a part with teenagers meeting new people for the first time in college. “Fitting in” is always encouraged, and sadly binge drinking is sometimes seen as something that can make you popular. Many new students jump between different social cliques for a short period of time. Some think they will only be accepted if they binge drink when other people are.

    Conformity to Social Norms

    Peer pressure isn’t the only social pressure. Earlier in the article, conformity to social norms was mentioned as a reason why men might over-report their amount of binge drinking. Masculinity, especially if it gets competitive, can explain why many young men binge.

    At times parental pressure and expectations are too high, and the young person doesn’t have a good relationship with their parents or feel as though they matter as an independent person. Then they can use binge drinking as a sort of rebellion against those expectations and rules. Lack of that strict parent being physically present makes it much more likely if the young adult is still being treated like a child.

    Some people binge drink specifically to forget their problems. Binge drinking to deal with stress is a very common occurrence. If it starts to happen too often, it can indicate an underlying psychological or stress problem as it is an early form of self-medicating.

    People with high-pressure jobs are most likely to have this reason.

    Elders and Binging

    As people drink more, their alcohol tolerance builds up. Therefore, someone with a high alcohol tolerance has to drink more to start feeling the effects. Often this is the case with older people (65+) as they simply have had time to build up that tolerance. It is possible that someone in this age group simply wants a drink, but finds it has no effect so he or she drinks more until it does.

    With older people, there is also the possibility that state-dependent memory plays a part. State-dependent memory is a psychological concept where people remember things that happened in one state of consciousness better when they are in the same state. Thus, if something very good happened when someone was drunk, they are significantly more likely to remember it when they are drunk again.

    And finally for this short summary, people sometimes just get curious. Hearing about a wild night out, reading about experiences of binge drinking makes people, especially young adults, want to try it for themselves.

    People are hard-wired to seek out new and unique experiences and binge drinking is one of them for most people.

    What are the Effects of Binge Drinking?

    Effects of binge drinking include:

    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Uncontrolled urination
    • Loss of bowel control
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Lack of muscular coordination
    • Blurred or double vision
    • Reduced body temperature
    • Elevated blood pressure
    • Irregular heart rhythms
    • Drop in blood-sugar level
    • Impairment or loss of judgment
    • Mood disturbance
    • Loss of consciousness

     

     

     

    Binge drinking is more dangerous than drinking lesser amounts and at a slower rate. That is because the body can metabolize and excrete only about one unit of alcohol per hour. What is not processed is left behind in the system. Alcohol levels in the blood start to rise, and all the major organs of the body are affected adversely.

    The severity of the symptoms of binge drinking varies from person to person. For instance, those who have an underlying liver or kidney disease process alcohol slower than healthy people.

    If not managed properly, some symptoms of binge drinking can worsen and trigger potentially life-threatening complications. In other cases, the effects themselves increase the risk of seemingly unrelated dangers.

    What are the Dangers of Binge Drinking?

    Dangers of binge drinking include:

    • Unintentional injuries to self and others
      (falls, drunken driving, drowning)
    • Intentional injuries
      (sexual assault, physical assault, domestic violence)
    • Unwanted pregnancy from having
      unprotected sex
    • Sexually transmitted diseases
    • Children born with Fetal Alcohol
      Syndrome if pregnant women binge drink
    • Alcohol poisoning
    • Heart failure
    • Hemorrhagic stroke
    • Coma
    • Death
    • Development of alcohol dependence

     

    Effects of binge drinking such as elevated blood pressure and irregular heart rhythms can cause heart failure. High blood pressure can also trigger hemorrhagic strokes. People with diabetes who are on medication for lowering blood sugar may go into a coma if glucose levels fall rapidly after a bout of excessive drinking.

    Blurred vision, reduced muscle movement, and impaired judgment increase the risks of injuries from tripping, falling, and drowning. Driving when physically and mentally impaired from drinking also increases the chances of accidents.

    Alcohol interferes with a person’s ability to think straight and envision the consequences of his or her actions. Instances of unintended pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, physical and sexual assault, and violence toward family and friends are not uncommon under the influence of alcohol.

    A grave danger of binge drinking is alcohol poisoning, an instance of a person drinking so much that his or her blood-alcohol concentration reaches toxic levels. Alcohol is a CNS (central nervous system) depressant. It is a substance that impairs the normal functionality of the CNS. As a result, breathing slows down and heart rate becomes abnormal. If symptoms are left untreated, the person can die.

    In high doses, alcohol inhibits the gag reflex, the involuntary mechanism of the body that kicks in, when needed, to prevent choking. Intoxicated people can choke on their own vomit.

    Binge Drinking Statistics

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published the following numbers on binge drinking:

    • More than 38 million adults in the U.S. (1 in 6) binge drink.
    • Adults binge drink about four times a month.
    • On average, binge drinkers consume eight drinks per session.
    • Adults in the age bracket 18-34 years binge drink most.
    • People aged 65 years and older binge drink most often, averaging 5-6 times a month.
    • The largest number of binge drinkers is in the >$75,000 income group.
    • The <$25,000 income group binge drinks most often and also drinks the most every session.
    • Men binge drink twice as much as women.
    • Binge drinking costs the U.S. economy about $191 billion in losses, every year, from health problems, crime, and loss of productivity.

    How can you Stop Binge Drinking?

    You can prevent binge drinking by:

    • Quitting alcohol
    • Drinking alcohol with water and food
    • Drinking slowly
    • Choosing soda or other non-alcoholic beverages
    • Not drinking competitively
    • Managing your stress
    • Staying away from binge drinking triggers
    • Keeping your children away from alcohol

    Lack of awareness. Social acceptance. Peer pressure. Overconfidence. Stress.

    Drinking triggers abound everywhere. You cannot escape situations, places, and people that nudge you to have one more drink. It is easy to go overboard, as the numbers quoted above prove. Thus, it is important to learn more about how you can keep away from binge drinking.

    Quit Alcohol

    This is no fool-proof way to avoid binge drinking. However, make sure that you go about it in the right way:

    • Don’t quit cold turkey. Speak to your doctor first; if you have been drinking for a long time, you may need to detox.
    • Learn how to manage alcohol withdrawal. The pain and discomfort of withdrawal symptoms can trigger a relapse, and often after days or weeks of abstinence, a person might end up drinking too much.
    • If you recently finish rehab, ensure that you keep up with alcohol support group meetings.

    Drink alcohol with water and food

    When you drink on an empty stomach, alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream quicker than when you mix alcohol with food and/or water. The more alcohol in your bloodstream, the more quickly you become intoxicated. Additionally, when you are drunk, your thinking is likely to be impaired, and you are more likely to drink more.

    Drink slowly

    Drinking quickly builds up a tolerance, so you tend to keep drinking to experience the high of alcohol.

    Choose soda or other non-alcoholic beverages

    No, you don’t have to forego social events where alcohol is served. But you can keep yourself from drinking too much by choosing soda or non-alcoholic beverages.

    Often, people feel compelled to drink alcohol at social gatherings so that they don’t look out of place. If you have a glass in hand—with anything in it but alcohol—you won’t be tormented with questions like, “Why are you not drinking?” Furthermore, if you choose to have alcohol later in the evening, you will be too full to binge on it.

    Do not drink to compete

    Get it out of your head the idea that drinking is “cool.”

    Alcohol is addictive. When you binge drink, you not only ruin your health but also become a risk to others. You can die from binge drinking. Drinking to compete or taking part in drinking bets is the most foolhardy thing you can ever do.

    Manage stress

    Dig deep to figure out what makes you drink excessively.

    If stress makes you reach out for a drink, then you welcome the “high” that alcohol induces. You are at risk of drinking more than you can tolerate. If you drink to de-stress, you cannot quit alcohol or stay away from binge drinking unless you manage your stress levels.

    Feelings of frustration and helplessness can also make a person want to “prove” his or her worth by taking part in drinking competitions. Address your emotional needs instead of drowning them in a drink. Work on your fears and feelings of insecurity instead of seeking refuge in alcohol.

    Stay away from binge drinking triggers

    The triggers can be people, places, or events. The following are some common binge drinking triggers:

    • Seeing other people binge drink
    • Being in bars and pubs
    • Being around alcohol
    • Feeling emotionally stressed
    • Being unable to manage or bear alcohol withdrawal symptoms

    Keep Your Children Away From Alcohol

    According to the CDC, about 90 percent of alcohol consumed by those aged less than 21 years is during binge drinking sessions!

    The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication by the National Institutes of Health, outlines the dangers of binge drinking among adolescents. The publication advises that the following measures should be adopted to prevent this vulnerable section of the population from falling prey to the dangers of excessive drinking:

    • Educate youngsters about the dangers of binge drinking
    • Do not introduce children to alcohol at a young age
    • Reduce their exposure to alcohol
    • Prevent easy access to alcohol
    • Encourage them to take up extracurricular activities—volunteering, music, sports, art—that will keep them preoccupied
    • Ask them about their friends and the places where they hang out and look out for attempts to evade answering or lying
    • Do not binge drink yourself

    Popular media tends to portray binge drinking as “cool” and the most natural thing to do if you are hanging out with friends, feeling sorry for yourself or sad, or wanting to prove yourself. The dangers of binge drinking get lost in these images. It is time you got the facts straight.

    Aside from the detrimental physical and psychological health effects, binge drinking also increases the risk of alcohol dependence.